体彩31选7今天开奖结果

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                                      1. 邦永PM2项目管理软件在系统集成行业中的全面应用

                                        ZUOWEIZHUANYEDERUODIANXITONGGONGCHENGCHENGJIANSHANG,MINGTEWANGLUOGONGSIYONGYOUXIANJINDEGUANLILINIANHEGUANLITIXI。SUIZHETONGSHIZAIJIANXIANGMUBUDUANZENGDUO,XIEDIAOGEGEXIANGMUJIGONGSIGEGEZHINENGBUMEN...

                                        云南亚太环保PM2运用案例

                                        体彩31选7今天开奖结果YUNYONGPM2XIANGMUGUANLIXITONGNENGBAGONGSIGEBUMENDESHUJUJINXINGHUIZONG,ZHUYAOWANSHANLEQIYENEIBUDEGUANLI,WANSHANLEGEBUMENZHIJIANDELIUCHENGZUODAOTONGYIHUA,TONGGUOBAOBIAODEXINGSHITIXIAN...

                                        论软件项目管理中质量控制模型的应用研究

                                         

                                        摘要: 从“质量”概念中所涵盖的两大要素(质量的相对性、质量的经济性)出发,系统论述了软件质量管理的重要性。结合软件组织能力进程的成熟度模型(CMM)列举出两种质量管理控制模型:一种是汇聚控制模型;另一种是反馈式控制模型。通过建立控制模型使管理者在质量管理中运用科学的方法令其各项决策行之有效,尽量避免管理中的非理性因素。同时,分析了在汇聚式模型中,根据CMM成熟度划分的不同企业应用中的不同表现。并且具体就如何建立反馈式控制模型,引入展开了头脑风暴法。通过合理的应用质量管理模型,我们将使软件项目管理变得有效而实际。
                                        关键词: 质量相对性;质量管理;成熟度模型;汇聚控制模型;反馈式控制模型;头脑风暴法
                                        近年来中国的软件业蓬勃发展,颇有星星之火可以燎原之势。然而在众多企业不断引进新技术的同时,软件业的管理理念却相对滞后,类似手工作坊模式的生产模式依旧,“软件工厂”成了可望而不可及的目标。针对于此,企业对高级软件项目经理人求贤若渴,试图改进其内部落后的管理模式。在一些成功的软件项目调查中显示,有效的软件质量管理在项目中起了至关重要的作用,甚至对企业管理、体彩31选7今天开奖结果也产生了深远的影响。

                                        一、质量概念中的两大要素
                                        著名美国质量管理专家Philip B.Crosby于1961年提出了“零缺陷”的概念,并被称之“质量革命”。1979年他出版了《Quality is e》一书,阐述了他的新的质量管理思想,并认为“质量就是符合需求”。经过近几十年软件开发思想的积累,关于质量的概念不断深入,Crosby的质量定义用更为精确与更具实际操作性的方式表示就是:质量是相对于某个(某些)人而言的价值。此定义明确提出了质量的相对性,也明确了质量不能脱离人而抽象存在的性质。这些进步对于我们正视软件开发中实际发生的质量问题是非常重要的。

                                        ZHILIANGDEXIANGDUIXINGKEYIJIESHIWEIYIGEYONGHURENWEIMOUGERUANJIANCHANPINZHILIANGWANQUANGUOGUAN,ERLINGYIGEYONGHUZEKENENGRENWEIZHILIANGBINGBUWANQUANGUOGUAN。YOUGUANZHILIANGDEDINGYIHUIDAIYOURENDEQINGGANDEYINSU,YINWEITASHITONGGUOYIXILIERENDEJUECE,CAINENGQUEDINGDAODIXUYAOTINGQUNAXIERENDEYIJIANYIJIZHEIXIEYIJIANZHONGNAXIESHIXIANGDUIZHONGYAODE。RANERDADUOSHURENQUEBINGMEIYOUCHAJUEDAOZHILIANGZHONGDEFEILIXINGYINSU,TONGSHIRUANJIANKAIFAZHEYEXIWANGDUIYUZHILIANGGUANLISHIKEYIJUEDUILIXINGDE,ZHEIYESHIZHILIANGGUANLIWANGWANGLIUYUXINGSHIERWUSHIJIXIAOGUODEYUANYIN。ZAIZHILIANGGUANLIZHONGYUNYONGLIXINGJINXINGPANDUANYUJUECEZHENGSHIBENWENSUOYAOTAOLUNDEMUDE。

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                                        ER、RUANJIANZHILIANGGUANLIHERUANJIANGUOCHENGNENGLICHENGSHUDUMOXING

                                        RUANJIANZHILIANGGUANLISHIGUANLIZHEZAIDUIRUANJIANZHILIANGJINXINGYIXILIEDULIANGZHIHOUZUOCHUDEGEZHONGJUECE,CUSHIRUANJIANCHANPINZAISHIJIAN、CHENGBENNEIFUHEBIAOZHUN。RUANJIANZHILIANGDULIANGSHIRUANJIANDULIANGDEYIGEZIJIHE,QIZAIYUCHANPIN、GUOCHENGHEXIANGMUDEZHILIANG。CrosbyGENJUCHANPINDEZHILIANG,DUIDADUOSHUZUZHISHENGCHANGUOCHENGJINXINGYANJIU,DIYICITICHULECHENGSHUDUJINCHENGJIEDUANDESIXIANG。RadiceDENGRENJIANGCrosbyGUANYUZHILIANGGUIHUADECENGCIJIEDUANHUAFENFANGFAJINXINGLETUIGUANG,YUNYONGDAORUANJIANXIANGMUKAIFAZHONG,ZHENDUIRUANJIANZUZHIDEKAIFAGUOCHENG,JIANLILEYIGECHENGSHUDUMOXING,BAOKUOGUOCHENGCHENGSHUDU(CMM)DEWUGECENGCI。SUIRANCIMOXINGSHIZHENDUIRUANJIANGUOCHENGDE,DANSHIJISHANGQUEYINGYONGYURUANJIANCHANYEDEZHILIANGGUOCHENGHEZHILIANGGUANLIBIAOZHUN。

                                        (1)CHUSHICENGCI。GAICENGCITEZHENG:WUXUDE;CHENGBENFEIYONG、JINDUJIZHILIANGJUNBUKEDULIANG、WUZHILIANGGUANLI。

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                                        (3)JINGGUODINGYIDECENGCI。GAICENGCITEZHENG:KEDINGXINGDE;DUICHENGBENFEIYONG、JINDUJIZHILIANGJINXINGYOUYISHIDEKONGZHI、FEIZHENGSHIDEZHILIANGGUANLICHAOZHENGSHIDEZHILIANGGUANLIJINHUA。

                                        (4)DEDAOGUANLIDECENGCI。GAICENGCITEZHENG:KEDINGLIANGDE;DUICHENGBENFEIKUI、JINDU、ZHILIANGYOULEHELIDETONGJIKONGZHI;ZHENGSHIERYOUXIAODEZHILIANGGUANLI。

                                        (5)JINGGUOYOUHUADECENGCI。GAICENGCITEZHENG:KEWENDING、CHIXUFAZHANDE;DUIYURUANJIANSHENGCHANZIDONGHUAHECHIXUGAIJINDIANDINGLELIANGHAODEJICHU;CHENGSHUDEZHILIANGGUANLI。

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                                        SAN、ZHILIANGGUANLIZHONGDELIANGZHONGKONGZHIMOSHI

                                        1.HUIJUKONGZHIMOXING

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                                        2.FANKUISHIKONGZHIMOXING

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                                        根据此作用图同时可以转换成一整套方程组,可以建立一个相应的数学模型。方法如下:先将每个箭头替换成一个等号,如果某个节点至少被一个箭头所指向,就可以建立一个方程,而对应于该节点的测量数量将被放在方程的左侧。
                                        例如:相对进展=F()其含义便是,相对进展取决于某些其他的测量数值,其中每一个数值对应于某个指向该节点箭头的起始节点。由图可以得出:相对进展=F(已完成的生产性工作量,待完成的工作量)。

                                        在作用图中,带黑色圆点的箭头表示这些作用是逆向变化的,用数学运算表示,如减法和除法。如图可以得出:函数F是一个减法运算:相对进展=已完成的生产性工作量一待完成的工作量。
                                        另外,为了确定方程的具体形式,还须进行一些实际测量,并进行相应的估算。当将所有关系的符号进行了如上转换之后,就可以得到一组方程组,而这些方程组也就相应描述了作用图所代表的系统状况。值得注意的是,这些方程组有时是线性的,而有时是非线性的,而非线性就是导致质量管理发生偏差的罪魁祸首。然而有很多软件项目管理者会常常忽视反馈式控制模型中的非线性因素。在现实中还有许多外界的因素干扰,以至于模型中线性的成分在大多数情况下只是一个理想状态。再以上图为例,“相对进展”由“完成的富有成果性工作”和“待完成的工作量”两个因素所决定。然而到达某一个时间点(临界点),“待完成的工作量”越多就越会影响到“完成富有成果性的工作”,从而再间接影响到“相对进展”。(资料来源:项目管理者联盟)

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